Contraception pt. 2: Dominion and the Purposes of Marriage

In our first post we took a preliminary look at abortifacients, noting that hormonal birth control has the possibility of causing an abortion and is thus not an option for pro-life Christians regardless of their stance on preventing conception. We also examined some health risks associated with birth control, delaying and limiting child bearing, and neglecting nursing. Additionally we saw how birth control creates the idea of an “unintended pregnancy” and increases the likelihood of abortions taking place, as well as how birth control facilitates sexual promiscuity.

Next we saw that birth control is not a recent invention. Its use was rampant in the ancient world and down through history pagans have used it but Christians have not because of their understanding of the blessing of children, the purpose of marriage, and the sin of onanism. And just like the state of the Church during the Babylonian exile and other times of persecution (Jer. 29:6), Christians have always understood that procreating and “raising up godly seed” (Mal. 2:15) is vital for the growth of the Church.

The Pattern of Scripture Towards Child Bearing

The Bible assumes that children are a necessary result of marriage and that procreation is a fundamental purpose of marriage. Being barren in the Bible is seen as a disastrous thing; every instance of a woman being barren in the Bible she weeps in despair and feels like she is cursed (except the women that Jesus refers to in Luke 23 who are thankful for being barren and also wish that the mountains would fall upon them).

“Behold, children are a heritage from the Lord,
the fruit of the womb a reward.
Like arrows in the hand of a warrior
are the children of one’s youth.
Blessed is the man
who fills his quiver with them!
He shall not be put to shame
when he speaks with his enemies in the gate” (Ps. 127:3-5).

Especially in times of trouble for the Church, childbearing is important because it is the primary method of discipleship and God is pleased to extend His Church through covenant families, “Take wives and have sons and daughters; take wives for your sons, and give your daughters in marriage, that they may bear sons and daughters; multiply there, and do not decrease” (Jer. 29:6). “But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew” (Ex. 1:12).

“The Lord was witness between you and the wife of your youth, to whom you have been faithless, though she is your companion and your wife by covenant. Did he not make them one, with a portion of the Spirit in their union? And what was the one God seeking? Godly offspring. So guard yourselves in your spirit, and let none of you be faithless to the wife of your youth” (Mal. 2:14-15).

“Yet she will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control” (1 Tim. 2:15).

“So I would have younger widows marry, bear children, manage their households, and give the adversary no occasion for slander. For some have already strayed after Satan” (1 Tim. 5:14-15).

Additionally, in 1 Cor. 7:1-16, 1 Timothy 2 and 3, Titus 1 and 2, Col. 3:18-21, Acts 21, Luke 23:28, Luke 1:7, etc. children are assumed to be a part, and a contingent result, of marriage. Thus it is clear that actively attempting to make oneself unable to conceive and bear children is altogether inconsistent with the pattern of Scripture regarding child bearing.

The Dominion Mandate

Besides the general pattern of Scripture about the blessing of children, Scripture also teaches that procreation is commanded, not just for Adam and Noah in order to populate the earth, but for all mankind as a fundamental purpose and duty of marriage. As John Calvin states in his commentary on Genesis 1:28, “This blessing of God may be regarded as the source from which the human race has flowed. And we must so consider it not only with reference to the whole, but also, as they say, in every particular instance” (except, of course, those whom God choses to make barren). Birth control violates the dominion mandate to “be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it…”

The command to be fruitful and multiply is given over and over in Scripture; God says it to Adam (Gen. 1), then Noah (Gen. 9), then Abraham (Gen. 17), then Jacob (Gen. 28 and 35), then Moses (Lev. 26), then Jeremiah (chapter 23), then Ezekiel (chapter 36). It is important to note that the last reference (Ezekiel 36) is used by Jesus to refer to the New Covenant age (John 3). And in Jeremiah 23 the time period is specified as the time when “Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.” This demonstrates that procreation within marriage is a creation ordinance which continues until the consummation (Matt. 22:30), rather than simply a positive command given only to Adam and Noah at times when the earth’s population was low.

Procreation a Fundamental Purpose and Duty of Marriage

Biblically and legally, procreation has always been understood to be a fundamental purpose and duty of marriage. The Westminster Confession of Faith emphasizes the fundamental role of procreation (among other things) when it states that

Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife; for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the Church with an holy seed; and for preventing of uncleanness.
WCF 24:2

Also in the Westminster Annotations and Commentary on the Whole Bible the assembly states that the increase of children “is the principle use of the conjugal estate” (commentary on Genesis 38:9). The Book of Common Prayer refers to “the procreation of children and their nurture in the knowledge and love of the Lord” (as well as “mutual joy, help, and comfort” between the spouses) as one of the main “purposes for which it was instituted by God.” Westminster Divine William Gouge repeatedly spoke of the procreation of children as “one main end of marriage” and “the duty of due benevolence” [ie. conjugal relations], one purpose of which is “for increasing the world with a legitimate brood” in his work Of Domesticall DutiesJohn Calvin comments regarding procreation from Genesis 1:28 “that pure and lawful method of increase, which God ordained from the beginning, remains firm; this is that law of nature which common sense declares to be inviolable” (Commentary on Genesis, pg. 98). Arthur Pink lived in a time when the universal and historic understanding of birth control was transitioning so he had this to say:

Now it is clear that marriage must have particular reasons for the appointment of it. Three are given in Scripture. First, for the propagation of children. This is its obvious and normal purpose: “So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him: male and female created He them” (Gen. 1:27) – not both males or both females, but one male and one female; and to make the design of this unmistakably plain God said, “Be fruitful and multiply.” For this reason marriage is called “matrimony,” which signifies motherage, because it results in virgins becoming mothers. Therefore it is desirable that marriage be entered into at an early age, before the prime of life be passed: twice in Scripture we read of “the wife of thy youth” (Prov. 5:18; Mal. 2:15). We have pointed out that the propagation of children is the “normal” end of marriage… We do not believe in what is termed “birth control…”

AW Pink (1886-1952), comment on 13:4 in An Exposition of Hebrews

Martin Luther, in true form, once proclaimed that “the purpose of marriage is not pleasure and ease but the procreation and education of children and the support of a family…. People who do not like children are swine, dunces, and blockheads, not worthy to be called men and women, because they despise the blessing of God, the Creator and Author of marriage” (Christian History, Issue 39, p. 24). John Locke and William Blackstone referred to procreation as the “chief end” of the institution of marriage (Justice Roberts, Obergefell v. Hodges, dissenting, pg 6), and even up to modern times secular legal experts have admitted that procreation is a foundational purpose of marriage and that severing this connection has resulted in logical and cultural precedent for sodomite marriages, “If this traditional understanding of the purpose of marriage does not ring true to all ears today, that is probably because the tie between marriage and procreation has frayed” (Justice Alito, Obergefell v. Hodges, dissenting, pg 4). Lastly, Alan Keyes in his debate with Barack Obama for the Illinois Senate makes an argument along these lines that was flabbergasting to the moderator and audience here. The only problem with his argument is that he says procreation is a principle of marriage, which is not true, it is a duty and purpose of marriage, but not a principle or part of the definition of it sine qua non; so Keyes’ argumentation seems right but his terminology is imprecise, so please keep that in mind when watching the clip.

Many more can be cited but this is sufficient to demonstrate that procreation is a fundamental purpose of marriage and is rooted in the created order. In the last two posts of this series we will examine how contraceptive acts (ie. hormonal, barriers, coitus interruptus, etc.) are sinful because they act against the nature of marriage and sex (not that the possibility is absent, but acted against). And we will distinguish these acts from others such as the rhythm method which is not sinful in finis operis (the end of the act) but if used to prevent conception it is sinful in finis operantis (the end of the actor).

Does this mean that elderly people beyond child bearing years cannot get married or that barrenness nullifies a marriage? We will answer this objection in our next post and we will consider the finis operis (the end of the act) and the finis operantis (the end of the actor) regarding acts that are sinful as well as lawful intentions that Scripture gives for husband and wife temporarily abstaining from sexual relations, none of which are for the purpose of preventing conception.



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